- What is a watershed?
(An area of land that drains into a body of water ... East Fork Lewis R., Columbia River, Puget Sound)
- Why do we need to monitor the water in streams?
(determine the health of streams; check of habitat/pollution problems; streams used for habitat, recreation, water & food)
- What is pollution? What is non-point pollution?
(anything that has a harmful effect on the environment; non-point is pollution from numerous sources or locations)
- What is the riparian zone?
(area of land along the stream)
- What are some physical parameters measured during stream monitoring?
(depth, width, flow rate, temperature, turbidity, gradient, substrate, sunlight/canopy cover)
- What is canopy cover and why is it important?
(tree branches extending outward over the stream; blocks sunlight & limits aquatic plant growth, shades & cools the stream, provides organic material in the form of leaves ...)
- Why is water temperature important?
(temperature affects metabolism and growth rate of aquatic organisms; affects amount of DO in the water; excessive heat can kill organisms)
- What is turbidity and why is it important?
(clarity of the stream; measures the amount of solid particles in the water which can block sunlight, reduce visibility & in large amounts can bury eggs and clog gills)
- What are some chemical tests done during stream monitoring?
(dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphate & nitrates, salinity, ...)
- What is DO and why is it important?
(many aquatic organisms use gills to remove oxygen molecules dissolved in the water; without sufficient DO they suffcate; adequate DO is especially important for salmon & sensitive macros)
- How does oxygen get into the water?
(molecules transfer from the air; splashing of the surface by waterfalls & rapids; photosynthesis by plants & algae)
- What is pH? (What does it measure?) What is neutral on the pH scale?
(pH measures the acidity or alkalinity of a substance; 7 is neutral; <7 is acidic; >7 is basic (alkaline)
- How do phosphates & nitrates affect streams?
(chemicals that act as fertilizers promoting plant & algae growth in the stream)
- What is biological testing?
(determining the environmental health of an area using living things ... bugs, plants, birds, fish, ...)
- What are benthic macroinvertebrates?
(organisms without backbones that are large enough to be seen with the unaided eye and live on the bottom of a stream or lake)
- What part of a stream do we use for collecting macros? Why?
(macro samples are collected in riffles; better habitat because of higher oxygen & rocky substrate produces more biodiversity; shallower areas of stream that are safer to sample)
- What are three groups (orders) of insects that are indicators of good water quality?
(E-P-T: mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies)
- What are the three body parts of insects? How many legs do insects usually have?
(head - thorax - abdomen; insects have six legs -- an exception are the larvae of the true flies (Diptera), such as blackflies, craneflies, midge, ...)
- What two life cycles might insects experience? Why don’t larvae lay eggs?
(1) incomplete: egg, nymph, adult; (2) complete: egg, larva, pupa, adult;
larvae are the immature forms of the organisms, it's the adults that lay eggs)
- What is FFG? What are the four groups? What do they eat? Know some examples for each group.
- shredders eat CPOM (leaves, cones, sticks, ...) - brown stoneflies, organic case caddisflies, many craneflies
- collecters (filterers & gatherers) eat FPOM (organic matter <1mm) - blackflies, netspinner caddisflies, nussels, mayflies, beetles (except predaceous)
- scrapers/grazers eat diatom & algae coating rocks - flathead mayflies, snails, mineral case caddisflies
- predators eat other living things - mottled color stoneflies, free-living caddisflies, dragonflies, predaceous beetle larva
- Be able to identify the following:
(Review macros identification using the "Know Your Macros" slideshow, or test your knowledge with one of the "Macro ID Practice Sets." See other examples at nwnature.net's: Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.)
- mayfly larva
- stonefly larva
- caddisfly larva
- cranefly larva
- blackfly larva
- water boatman
- water beetle (adult & larva)
- midge larva
- water mite
- aquatic earthworm
- snail (right vs. left)